In the project, analytical methods were developed to detect PFAS in electroplating waste water. The use of single substance analysis using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS on more than 1000 waste water samples made it possible to compare various waste water treatment techniques (activated carbon, ion exchange).
The TZW sub-project consisted primarily of the following three parts:
(i) Development of a photometric determination method as a basis of cost-effective process monitoring analysis in the high µg/l concentration range
(ii) Adaptation of the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to determine low concentrations of PFASs (< 1 µg/l)
(iii) PFAS analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the samples of project partners.
By using the developed photometric method, which stems from the determination of anionic surfactants using methylene blue (methylene blue active substances, MBAS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) residues of approx. 50 µg/l can be recorded along with some other substances such as the formulation aid perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). The investment costs of the analytical equipment are much lower than for HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, however it is more time-intensive as technicians need to apply the standard addition process due to matrix influences.
In addition, more than 1000 samples were measured using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS for lab and semi-technical experiments of project partners for adsorptive PFOS removal. In these experiments, PFOS and PFBS were analysed using direct injection or via solid phase extraction (SPE), depending on the concentration range and the matrix being investigated.
R. Schwarz, A. Schiffer, K. Fischwasser, F.T. Lange, M. Süß (2010) Perfluorierte Tenside in der Oberflächenveredlung - Vermeidung oder Substitution? [Perfluorinated surfactants in surface finishing – prevention or substitution?]. Galvanotechnik 1/2010: 194-199.
F. Schuricht, W. Reschetilowski, H. Appl, A. Schiffer, E. Giebler, B. Steiner, F.T. Lange, M. Süß, R. Reich (2014) Entfernung des perfluorierten Tensids PFOS aus Abwasserströmen der galvanischen Industrie, Teil 1 [Removal of the perfluorinated surfactant PFOS from waste water in the electroplating industry, Part 1]. Galvanotechnik 9/2014, 2062-2072.
F. Schuricht, W. Reschetilowski, H. Appl, A. Schiffer, E. Giebler, B. Steiner, F.T. Lange, M. Süß, R. Reich (2014) Entfernung des perfluorierten Tensids PFOS aus Abwasserströmen der galvanischen Industrie, Teil 2 [Removal of the perfluorinated surfactant PFOS from waste water in the electroplating industry, Part 2]. Galvanotechnik 10/2014, 2277-2082.